How Does Smartphone Screen Works?

The answer to this question isn't a simple one liner, but rather it's a combination of answers, app development. wireless internet carrier networks, steve jobs is brilliant marketing, though, though i would argue the most important contributor was the seamless combination of different functions and technologies into a single pack. in this episode. we're going to explore the most distinctive feature of the smartphone's merging of technology, the touch screen display.

 What are Touchscreens?
How Does Smartphone Screen Works?

There are three technologies in the touchscreen display. these technologies are combined all on top of each other. when you felt and used a smartphone for the first time. you just knew that you were holding something revolutionary, something different from all previous folks. these were not new technologies. many devices used a tactile interface and color displays had already been the standard for most phones. even tough into glass had been discovered in the eighteen hundred's. but the innovative element was combining them seamlessly. one layer on top of another like magic. 


How Does Smartphone Screen Works?

ok, so let's get into the layers of a touchscreen display on the top, we have the protective glass. a lot of us have had a screen shatter, but think about how many times you've dropped it, and it hasn't. that's because of smartphones, glasses over five times stronger than normal glass, and before the first iphone showed up in two thousand and seven, the standard for cellphone screens was plastic. and although plastic doesn't shatter, it is very easily scratched if the screen were covered in plastic, it wouldn't last a week sitting in your pocket next to your keys before having dozens of scratches all over it, so what makes toughened glass so much stronger. a smartphone's glass is in the luminosity glass that is topped by soaking it in a bath of potassium nitrate uh. this causes the sodium atoms in the glass to migrate out. and much larger potassium atoms to take their place because the potassium atoms are much larger, they generate a substantial compressive force on the surface of the glass.
 yeah. here's a quick analogy. imagine filling the backseat of a car with three average sized people, they fit snugly. but if you push them, they're still able to move now. replace those three people with three football linebackers, those linebackers are just flat out stuck, unable to move. it will take much more force to move those linebackers from their seats. this is the fundamental concept behind what makes toughened glass special. the atoms are compressed, so it would take much more force for the glass to break it. 


below the toughened glass is a projected capacitive touch screen that senses the presence and location of conductive materials such as your fingertip. this touchscreen is composed of two transparent diamond grid patterns printed on polyester with an optically clear insulator in the middle, the diamond grid pattern is printed with a transparent material called indium tin oxide or i t o. which acts as a conductor, let's take a closer look on how it works. say we build a bunch of electrons on this blue diamond. however, because there is an insulator in the way the electrons cannot move, the electrons generate a negative electric field, which causes a bunch of positive charges to build up on the yellow diamond. this is called a capacitor. 
Now when we move a conductive material such as the tip of your finger close to this capacitor, it disrupts the electric field, which changes the amount of positive charges that build up on the yellow diamond. the change in positive charges on the yellow diamond is measured. and the processor registers this as a touch the location of the touch is detected by scanning the charges or voltage along the blue diamonds while actively measuring each yellow diamond column, note that each row of blue diamonds is connected together, also each column of yellow diamonds is connected and. this setup makes a grid of blue columns and yellow rows. just to clarify again, all of these components are made with transparent materials. measuring each point requires too much circuitry. so we only measure each column. the charge or voltage gets sent to each row in quick succession, so the processor can register multiple touches at once. 


Below that is the display which uses lcd or oled technology. while the l.c.d.and the oled display both produce high quality images in this post, we are going to focus on the oled technology as it is the standard in most new smartphones. oled stands for organic light emitting diet. this high resolution oled display is what generates the high quality images that we see whenever we look at our smartphone, this is a crazy, intricate grid current twenty eighteen high end phone can have over three point three million pixels. that means there are ten million microscopic individually controlled dimmable red.
green and blue light in the palm of your hand. take a moment and think about the engineering level required to control, let alone design and manufacture that many microscopic lights. oled displays are composed of a massive grid of individual pixels. and in each pixel is a red, green and blue sub pixel, each sub pixels light intensity is controlled by a small. thin family transistor that acts as a dimmer switch. there are many layer structures in each subpixel, however, explaining the function of each layer will have to be saved for a future episode. photons are produced in the subpixel by electrons that are driven from the negative to the positive terminal when they passed through this middle layer here called the emissive layer, photons are admitted through a release of energy, the compounds used to make up the emissive layer determines the color of the lay emitted. and the intensity of this light is dependent on how many electrons passed through. this explanation is greatly simplified, but the research, engineering and science behind oled is extensive.
 In fact, the twenty fourteen nobel prize in physics was awarded to three researchers for their discovery of efficient blue light emitting diet. so let's summarize on the bottom is an oled display composed of up to ten million eighty feet, a little color lights on top of that is a transparent projected capacity of touch screen that can sense one or multiple touches at a time, and on top of that is strength into class that protects your screen from scratches, and most falls. now you too are a touch screen.
 if you have any further questions, post them in the comments below, and tell your friends and family about something you learned this post details the structure of a touchscreen display branches from this episode are multitouch design. electric fields capacitors. but what leads in their control lcds, wire materials, transparent and interface aesthetics. thanks again for watching, and until next time, consider the conceptual simplicity gets structural complexity in the world around us. 


How does a touch screen work?

A touch screen is a type of display that detects and responds to touch. There are two main types of touch screens: capacitive and resistive. Capacitive touch screens work by detecting changes in an electrical field when a conductive object, such as a finger, comes into contact with the screen. Resistive touch screens use pressure to detect touch, and are made up of layers of conductive and resistive materials.

How do I clean my smartphone touch screen?

To clean your smartphone touch screen, use a microfiber cloth or a screen cleaning solution specifically designed for electronic devices. Do not use harsh chemicals or abrasive materials, as these can scratch the screen.

Why is my touch screen not responding?

There are several reasons why a touch screen may not be responding. It could be due to a software issue, a hardware problem, or physical damage to the screen. Try restarting your device, removing any screen protectors or cases, or resetting the device to see if that resolves the issue.

How do I calibrate my touch screen?

Most smartphones do not have a touch screen calibration option, as they are calibrated at the factory. However, if you are experiencing issues with touch accuracy, you can try resetting the touch settings or performing a factory reset.

What is the difference between capacitive and resistive touch screens?

Capacitive touch screens detect changes in an electrical field, while resistive touch screens use pressure to detect touch. Capacitive screens are generally more responsive and accurate, but cannot be used with gloves or non-conductive objects. Resistive screens are less sensitive, but can be used with any object, including gloves.

How do I take a screenshot on my smartphone?

The method for taking a screenshot varies depending on the type of smartphone you have. On most Android devices, you can press the power button and volume down button simultaneously to take a screenshot. On an iPhone, you can press the side button and volume up button at the same time.

How do I fix a cracked or broken touch screen?

If your touch screen is cracked or broken, it may need to be replaced. You can take it to a professional repair service or try replacing the screen yourself, although this can be difficult and may void the warranty.

How do I disable the touch screen on my smartphone?

Some smartphones have an option to disable the touch screen in the device's settings or accessibility options. Alternatively, you can use a third-party app or program to disable touch input.

Can I use a stylus on my smartphone touch screen?

Most smartphones are compatible with styluses, although you may need to purchase a specific type of stylus for your device. Capacitive touch screens require a conductive stylus, while resistive touch screens can use any type of stylus.

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